Jeffrey Miller

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25th Anniversary of the Panmunjom Ax Murder Incident — Part 1

Panmunjom Ax Murder Incident -- August 18, 1976

Commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the Panmunjom Axe Murder Incident

August 17, 2001

Of all the times I visited Panmunjom—whether on a tour or as a journalist, the most memorable one was on August 17, 2001 for a special, somber ceremony to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 1976 Panmunjom Axe Murder Incident.

That one was special because I had been personally invited by Colonel Miller and was the only Korean media there besides Stars and Stripes. I had already written a feature article about the anniversary of this historic and tragic event by interviewing some soldiers who had been there 25 years before, including the former driver for Capt. Bonifas (he was not the driver on that fateful August day because he was soon to rotate back to the States) and now I was there to take some photos for the article as well as be a part of history.

It was also another example of “being in the right place at the right time.” For one year I had paid my dues as it were writing numerous articles about returning Korean War veterans as well as writing about USFK (United States Forces Korea) and maybe this was one way of “saying thanks” by offering me the opportunity to cover such memorable and historic events.

Back in 1976, a work crew was sent into the JSA to trim a poplar tree that blocked the view of a UNC (United Nations Command) checkpoint. The crew, led by Captain Bonifas and Lt. Mark Barrett were attacked by North Korean soldiers and killed. This brutal murder of the two U.S. officers resulted in Operation Paul Bunyan a few days later when a large contingency of ROK (Republic of Korea) soldiers and U.S. returned to the tree and chopped it down.

That event kind of brought me full circle in a sense because I was serving in the U.S. Air Force in the summer of 1976 (I was stationed at Lowry AFB at the time attending technical training school) when I heard about the Axe Murder Incident. Now, 25 years later, I was there right where it happened remembering it and later writing about it for The Korea Times.

How’s that for being a part of history?

*         *         *

Twenty-five years after Capt. Arthur Bonifas and Lt. Mark Barrett were brutally attacked by ax-wielding North Korean People’s Army (KPA) soldiers in the Joint Security Area (JSA) of Panmunjom, Mark Luttrull still regrets not accompanying Bonifas that day.

“I always felt that had I been there, I might have prevented the murder,” said Luttrull, who had been Bonifas’ driver and guard.

The shocking incident, which was filmed on the part of the UNC side of the truce village, provoked wrath of the U.S. and ROK and rest of the free world, and led them to ponder resolute action against the brutality. Several days later, North Korean leader Kim Il-sung expressed “regrets,’’ the first of its kind ever made by the dictator who initiated the 1950-53 Korean War.

On Aug. 18, 1976, a work detail entered the JSA to trim a 30-year-old Normandy poplar tree that obscured the view from a United Nations Command (UNC) checkpoint. The four-foot diameter tree, which stood approximately 80 feet high, was located near the Bridge of No Return. Anywhere else in Korea, this shade tree, thick with foliage, would have been a welcome relief from the harsh summer sun. However, in the JSA the tree blocked an important line of sight from another UNC checkpoint and needed to be pruned.

Tree trimming and brush clearing had been a regular task in the JSA, and until that August had been performed without incident. Twelve days earlier, though, four UNC guards and six Korean Service Corps (KSC) workers had started to trim the tree, but were stopped and questioned by KPA guards.

“The initial work crew had been chased away by the North Koreans a few days before,’’ recalled Luttrull. “I had gone with Capt. Bonifas on Tuesday the 17th to the JSA to trim the tree, but the mission was aborted because it was raining.’’

The next morning, after Luttrull checked out the commander’s jeep from the motor pool at 10:00, he reported to Bonifas at Camp Kitty Hawk. However, Bonifas needed him to do another job.

“He told me that he had an assignment for me. He was leaving country in two days, had to turn in his field gear, and needed someone to take care of it for him,” said Luttrull. “He said that he would get someone else to guard him that day. Then he left and that was the last time I ever saw him.”

Over at Camp Liberty Bell, Steve Sprague, a member of 3rd Platoon, A company of the 9th Infantry, recalled that day as being no different from any other.

“The weather was hot and humid as usual for that time of year,’’ recalled Sprague. “I was lying in my bunk that morning, daydreaming about going home on leave because I had gotten married a year earlier.’’

At 10:30, a UNC work force of five KSC personnel accompanied by a UNC security force, including Bonifas, Barrett and one ROK officer, returned to the poplar tree and started to prune it.

Shortly thereafter, KPA guards appeared and observed the pruning without apparent concern. Suddenly, the KPA security force commander demanded that the work detail stop, or there would be trouble. Capt. Bonifas did not order the operation stopped. Senior Lt. Pak Chul (often referred to as “Bulldog’’) of the KPA, seeing that he was losing control, took off his wristwatch, wrapped it in his handkerchief and put it in his pocket. Another KPA soldier rolled up his sleeves. Pak then shouted “Migun ul chu gi ja,’’ (“Kill the US aggressors’’).

A superior force of 30 KPA guards wielding pick handles, knives, clubs and axes attacked the UNC security force and work detail. Pak jumped on Bonifas from the back, forcing him to the ground, where he was beaten to death by five KPA guards. Barrett would die later en route to the medivac hospital in Seoul. The North Korean attack was finally broken up when a UNC soldier drove his 2 1/2-ton truck into the fight and over Capt. Bonifas to protect him. In the skirmish, the ROK officer, three Korean Augmentees to the U.S. Army (KATUSA) and four U.S. enlisted men were wounded.

“If I had gone into the JSA that day, I would have been watching Bulldog like a hawk,’’ said Luttrull. “I am told that Capt. Bonifas had his back to Bulldog when he was killed. That doesn’t surprise me. Capt. Bonifas would turn his back on Bulldog when Bulldog began threatening him.’’

Back at Camp Liberty Bell, Sprague’s daydreaming was interrupted when the alert sounded. “Our 3rd platoon had one of the fastest reaction times of any in the battalion. It took just under two minutes from the time the siren sounded to when our trucks reached the gate of the southern border of the DMZ,’’ he recalled. “I remember our lieutenant rushing into the barracks yelling ‘This is not drill.’

“Everyone in the platoon was now moving faster than before. By the time we reached the gate, we were stopped and told to stand by on the helipad outside Camp Liberty Bell. The confrontation with the NKPA was over. While we were waiting on the trucks, we were told about the tree trimming attempt and the murders of the JSA officers,’’ Sprague said.

Chris Reilly was on board the medivac helicopter that brought some of the men out of the JSA. The helicopter had been on a training mission out of Seoul when it was rerouted to Panmunjom. Before flying into the JSA, they were issued yellow armbands and the pilots were given 45-milimeter pistols.

“We picked up one KIA MP officer with blunt force trauma to the head, one KATUSA very close to death with a head trauma and four walking wounded with various cuts, broken arms and so on,’’ recalled Reilly. “I was pretty busy keeping the KATUSA breathing all the way to the 121st Hospital in Seoul. I believe that Barrett died on the way to the hospital in the JSA bird that flew out as we got there. From what I heard, he was not alive by much—if at all.’’

Reilly also remembered vividly the confusion in the JSA when the helicopters landed, especially the KPAs looking wild with blood on their pants, hands and holsters as he got out of the helicopter and grabbed the wounded people. “I was scared for a week,’’ said Reilly.

News of the murders traveled fast.

“When we were finally told what happened, I remember feeling shock and sadness that Capt. Bonifas and Lt. Barrett were killed,’’ recalled Bill Labombarde, who was assigned to a weapons platoon at Camp Hovey. “When we found out all the details, we were pissed off at the NKPA for what happened and wanted to do something to make it right.’’

Labombarde’s father had served two tours in Korea, one during the Korean War and the second as the First Sgt. at Camp Clinch. While he was there, his company’s barracks were blown up by NKPA, killing and wounding several of his men.

When Luttrull finally heard that Bonifas and Barrett had been killed, he was sickened. “I felt some degree of responsibility,’’ he said. “Then I got angry. I believe the men of the JSA were outraged, as was the entire US military presence.’’

Wayne Johnson, who was assigned to Camp Liberty Bell, echoed Luttrull’s sentiment. “We all knew that the NKPA was unpredictable, but I don’t think that any of us expected a fight to the death inside the JSA,’’ added Johnson. “I thought that something was going to happen the night of the murders. So did a lot of men, and the number on patrol within the DMZ that night was greater than normal. As the commander’s driver, many men came to me thinking that I might know more than what they were told. The general opinion of the men at Liberty Bell was similar to mine: something might happen and there was about a 50-50 chance that we wouldn’t make it out.’’

25th Anniversary of the Panmunjom Ax Murder Incident — Part 2

Just to give everyone a heads up about this essay–later this year I am coming out with a new book, which will include this essay.

Look for that book and my other books here.


  1. Thanks for bringing this post back into your new blog.

    Capt. Bonifas was a great commander.

  2. Thanks for your comments.

    I am happy that I was able to write about the anniversary event back in 2001 and add it to my blog now.

    Thanks again for stopping by.

  3. I was on leave at my home in Massachusetts when the ax murders took place. I had just left Ft. Riley, KS and had orders for Field Station Korea, at Camp Humprey’s. When I arrived in Korea a couple of weeks later, the entire county was still on high alert. The next week or two were quite an experience. No one knew for sure exactly what would happen or how the crisis would end.

  4. I was in the 552nd Sig Co. at Camp Casey during the incident in Aug 76. I worked in the Communications Center that was right beside Division Hdqts. We had a 4 person detachment from the 552nd at the JSA compound also. The night before they went in to cut the tree down our Battalion Commander came up from Seoul and told us to be prepared for tomorrow morning, and that the 2nd Div. was going to “cause an incident”… He told us “Whatever happens ‘happens’ and be prepared for it”. It was very tense that night… I didn’t get any sleep at all. Our mission, if shooting started, was to destroy our equipment, then head south if possible… and, if it wasn’t possible, “join up” with the Division… I thought we (at Camp Casey) were in a real bad position. The NKPA would surely have this camp “sighted in” with their long range artillery… But, our guys up on the DMZ were really in the danger zone… So, that tempered my anxiety a bit…

    Everyone did their jobs perfectly, and I really believe that the NKs “backed down” from what they saw happening, and how rapidly they saw the mobilization happen…

    Never in a thousand years though did I think that I’d be in the middle of a possible war at 19 years old…

  5. I have a piece of this tree. I lived there from 75-78 .. Is there anyway I can donate it to a muesum…

  6. Matt,

    Thanks so much for your comments. I appreciate them a lot.

    As for the piece of tree that you have from Operation Paul Bunyan, I think you should contact Imjin Scouts–just Google the name for the website url. Hope this helps.

  7. In the early 1960s the 1st Cav. decided to name small unit camps after some of their own heroes. Camp Clinch was so named after my uncle Bill, Cpl. Willard Clinch from Oneida, NY. I have US Army photographs of the dedication ceremony and another of my uncles has the plate that was there, and graciously removed by the last top-ranking NCO who later could find my family and give it to them many years later!

  8. Frank McDonald III

    April 6, 2011 at 6:28 am

    The National Emergency Proc. No. 2914 was in effect for the ‘Korean conflict’ on the 18 August 1976. President Ford signed an Executive Order 11940 on Sept.30, 1976 for PROC.2914, so the United States was at war with ‘North Korea’.
    The Department of Veterans says in Title 38, U.S.C., Section 101. Definitions- Statute (9) that the ‘Korean conflict’ ended on Janaury 31, 1955.
    That is a lie because the National Emergency Proc. No. 2914 for the ‘Korean conflict’ was eliminated by Public Law 94-412( National Emergencies Act) on Sept. 14, 1976.

  9. I was in Kunsan ab during this.see my comments on “The passing of the night” by Col Rob Risner. And take time to read that book. It will inspire you.

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