Jeffrey Miller

A Writer's Life

Tag: Music (page 1 of 4)

Serious Rock ‘n Rollers

Jerks_1980Without a doubt, this is one of my favorite photos taken of the legendary Illinois Valley band, The Jerks. There’s no gleaming and smiling at the camera. These boys are serious about their rock and roll.

Those were some fun times in the early 1980s when the band was in their nadir and everyone wanted to jump with The Jerks. I remember talking to the band’s soundman, Tom Joliffe, one night after a gig, and he said, “Sparks, you and I came along when the band had reached its height.”

They might have just been another bar band, but these seasoned musicians breathed life into local music scenes like so many other bands around the same time.

They carried the torch for rock and roll like so many other bands who have kept the fires burning.

The Panama Affair — The Soundtrack

TPA_ebook April

It’s true that when I write, I often see a movie in a mind. And if I am seeing a movie in my mind, I need some music. At the same time, music from a particular period, such as the late 60s for Ice Cream Headache, also inspires me when I write.

For The Panama Affair, which begins in 1976 and ends in 1989, I had a lot of music to choose from which also was part of my musical growth, from classic 70s rock to Punk and New Wave.

The Panama Affair Playlist

1.       Welcome to the Jungle – Guns ‘N Roses

2.       Bad Company – Bad Company

3.       Sonic Reducer– Dead Boys

4.       Psycho Killer– Talking Heads

5.       Desperado –Alice Cooper

6.       Fortunate Son– Credence Clearwater Revival

7.       I Can’t Get No Satisfaction – Devo

8.       We’re Not Going to Take it – Twisted Sister

9.       Life During Wartime – Talking Heads

10.    Hotel California – Eagles

11.    Love Hurts –Nazareth

12.    Happy Hunting Ground – Sparks

13.    Jet Airliner –Steve Miller Band

14.    Roland theHeadless Thompson Gunner – Warren Zevon

15.    Storm the Embassy– Stray Cats

16.    Refugee – TomPetty

17.    Lawyers, Guns,and Money – Warren Zevon

18.    Ballroom Blitz– Sweet

19.    Highway toHell – AC/DC

20.    Search and Destroy – The Stooges

21.    Slow Motion –Ultravox

22.    Bad Reputation- Joan Jett

23.    Mad World –Tears for Fears

24.    Let’s Have a War – Fear

25.    Hey, Hey, My My (Into the Black) – Neil Young

26.    Free Bird –Lynyrd Skynryd

27.    Wait for the Blackout – The Damned

28.    Born to Lose– Heartbreakers

29.    Highway Star –Deep Purple

30.    Paranoid –Black Sabbath

31.    Hotter thanHell – Kiss

32.    Wasted Days and Wasted Nights – Freddy Fender

33.    Dangerous Type– The Cars

34.    Come Back Jonee– Devo

35.    Sultans of Swing – Dire Straits

36.    Commando –Ramones

37.    Boys of Summer– Don Henley

38.    Livin’ Thing –ELO

39.    Blinded by theLight – Manfred Mann

40.    Fernando –ABBA

41.    Don’t Fear the Reaper – Blue Oyster Cult

42.    Ghost Riders in the Sky – The Outlaws

43.    I Wanna Be Sedated – Ramones

44.    White Lines –Grandmaster Flash

45.    Surrender –Cheap Trick

46.    Bad to the Bone – George Thorogood

47.    Poor Boy (TheGreenwood) – ELO

48.    GoingUnderground – The Jam

49.    Too Old to Rock and Roll, Too Young to Die – Jethro Tull

50.    I Fought the Law – The Clash

51.    Heartbreaker –Pat Benatar

52.    Show Me the Way – Peter Frampton

53.    Dream Weaver –Gary Wright

54.    Rock and Roll– Led Zeppelin

55.    We Didn’t Start the Fire – Billy Joel

56.    Run Like Hell– Pink Floyd

57.    Running with the Devil – Van Halen

58.    Homicide – 999

59.    Gut Feeling/SlapYour Mammy – Devo

60.    Havana Affair– Ramones

61.    Cum on Feel the Noise – Slade

62.    Waterloo –ABBA

63.    Rumble in Brighton – Stray Cats

64.    They Don’t Want Me – Wall of Voodoo

65.    Let’s Lynch the Landlord – Dead Kennedys

66.    Living Next Door to Alice – Smokie

67.    La Grange – ZZTop

68.    Black Betty –Ram Jam

69.    Prisoners of Rock and Roll – Neil Young

70.    You’ve Got Another Thing Coming – Judas Priest

71.    One –Metallica

72.    Eye of Fatima –Camper Van Beethoven

73.    Shanghai’d in Shanghai – Nazareth

74.    Orange Crush– REM

75.    Beef Boloney –Fear

76.    It Takes A Worried Man – Devo

77.    The Heat is On– Glenn Frey

78.    You Got Lucky– Tom Petty

79.    Beds are Burning – Midnight Oil

80.    Don’t You Forget About Me – Simple Minds

81.    Hang em High –Van Halen

82.    Flirtin’ With Disaster – Molly Hatchet

83.    Pretty Vacant– Sex Pistols

84.    Back in Black– AC/DC

85.    Cretin Hop –Ramones

86.    Won’t Get Fooled Again – The Who

87.    No Thugs inOur House – XTC

88.    For Whom the Bell Tolls – Metallica

89.    Big Shot –Billy Joel

90.    Immigrant Song– Led Zeppelin

91.    Burning Down the House – Talking Heads

92.    Running on Empty – Jackson Browne

93.    Games Without Frontiers – Peter Gabriel

94.    Hair of the Dog – Nazareth

95.    The Lunatics Have Taken Over the Asylum – Fun Boy Three

96.    Breaking the Law – Judas Priest

97.    I Remember Death in the Afternoon – Ultravox

98.    Generals and Majors – XTC

99.    Because the Night – Patti Smith

100.Who Are You –The Who



Classic Album Cover Art: Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon (1973)

MI0003237416Starting in the 1970s, when I started buying albums, there were many albums which were defined by the artwork which graced the front and back. Much of the album art was spectacular, intriguing, surreal, visionary, breathtaking and in many instances, simply gorgeous.

Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon (1973)

By condensing the sonic explorations of Meddle to actual songs and adding a lush, immaculate production to their trippiest instrumental sections, Pink Floyd inadvertently designed their commercial breakthrough with Dark Side of the Moon. The primary revelation of Dark Side of the Moon is what a little focus does for the band. Roger Waters wrote a series of songs about mundane, everyday details which aren’t that impressive by themselves, but when given the sonic backdrop of Floyd’s slow, atmospheric soundscapes and carefully placed sound effects, they achieve an emotional resonance. But what gives the album true power is the subtly textured music, which evolves from ponderous, neo-psychedelic art rock to jazz fusion and blues-rock before turning back to psychedelia. It’s dense with detail, but leisurely paced, creating its own dark, haunting world. Pink Floyd may have better albums than Dark Side of the Moon, but no other record defines them quite as well as this one.

Review by Stephen Thomas Erlewine, All Music

There are some albums which define the 70s better than other ones. This is one of those albums.

Classic Album Covers: David Bowie’s The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (1972)


Starting in the 1970s, when I started buying albums, there were many albums which were defined by the artwork which graced the front and back. Much of the album art was spectacular, intriguing, surreal, visionary, breathtaking and in many instances, simply gorgeous.

David Bowie’s The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (1972)

Borrowing heavily from Marc Bolan’s glam rock and the future shock of A Clockwork Orange, David Bowie reached back to the heavy rock of The Man Who Sold the World for The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. Constructed as a loose concept album about an androgynous alien rock star named Ziggy Stardust, the story falls apart quickly, yet Bowie’s fractured, paranoid lyrics are evocative of a decadent, decaying future, and the music echoes an apocalyptic, nuclear dread. Fleshing out the off-kilter metallic mix with fatter guitars, genuine pop songs, string sections, keyboards, and a cinematic flourish, Ziggy Stardust is a glitzy array of riffs, hooks, melodrama, and style and the logical culmination of glam. Mick Ronson plays with a maverick flair that invigorates rockers like “Suffragette City,” “Moonage Daydream,” and “Hang Onto Yourself,” while “Lady Stardust,” “Five Years,” and “Rock ‘n’ Roll Suicide” have a grand sense of staged drama previously unheard of in rock & roll. And that self-conscious sense of theater is part of the reason why Ziggy Stardust sounds so foreign. Bowie succeeds not in spite of his pretensions but because of them, and Ziggy Stardust — familiar in structure, but alien in performance — is the first time his vision and execution met in such a grand, sweeping fashion.

Review by Stephen Thomas Erlewine, All Music

Not only is that a classic album cover, it is classic album, and Bowie’s best.

Are you noticing a trend here: some of the more classic album covers surround a concept album?

Classic Album Art: Klaatu’s 3:47 EST (1976)

MI0001852649 (1)Starting in the 1970s, when I started buying albums, there were many albums which were defined by the artwork which graced the front and back. Much of the album art was spectacular, intriguing, surreal, visionary, breathtaking and in many instances, simply gorgeous.

Klaatu’s 3:47 EST:

Once all of the hype about Klaatu being The Beatles  is disregarded, 3:47 EST (aka Klaatu) surfaces as an entertaining debut album made up of light, harmonic pop songs which harbor a little bit of a progressive rock feel in a few spots. Because the album revealed no information about the band whatsoever, this fueled accusations by newspaper reporter Steve Smith that the band was actually the Beatles’ pseudo group, and there’s no denying that the similarities are bewildering. But Klaatu was actually three studio musicians from Toronto, fronted by drummer and singer Terry Draper. Klaatu’s “Calling Occupants of Interplanetary Craft” became a Top 40 hit for the Carpenters in 1977, but the other tracks from the band’s debut are just as congenial if not more compelling.

Composed of poppy horn work and inventive instrumentation, tracks like “California Jam” and the quaint- sounding “Sir Bodsworth Rugglesby” (which sounds like an early Genesis title) offer up a unique blend of bright, glistening strings and placid vocals. The lengthy and progressively cosmic “Little Neutrino” is a an entertaining instrumental stew that beautifully wanders about in almost free-formed style, while “Anus of Uranus” and the most commercial-sounding track, “Sub Rosa Subway,” revealDraper’s songwriting prowess. While 3:47 EST is Klaatu’s strongest release from nearly every aspect, their second album, entitled Hope, contains less of a pop-infused recipe but has greater progressive depth and leans toward more of an experimental sound, especially where the instruments are concerned.

Review by Mike Degagne, All Music

Remember when we all thought that Klaatu might be The Beatles resurrected?

Classic Album Art: Electric Light Orchestra’s Eldorado (1974)


Starting in the 1970s, when I started buying albums, there were many albums which were defined by the artwork which graced the front and back. Much of the album art was spectacular, intriguing, surreal, visionary, breathtaking and in many instances, simply gorgeous.

ELO’s Eldorado (1974)

This is the album where Jeff Lynne finally found the sound he’d wanted since co-founding Electric Light Orchestra three years earlier. Up to this point, most of the group’s music had been self-contained — Lynne, Richard Tandy, et al., providing whatever was needed, vocally or instrumentally, even if it meant overdubbing their work layer upon layer. Lynne saw the limitations of this process, however, and opted for the presence of an orchestra — it was only 30 pieces, but the result was a much richer musical palette than the group had ever had to work with, and their most ambitious and successful record up to that time. Indeed, Eldorado was strongly reminiscent in some ways of Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. Not that it could ever have the same impact or be as distinctive, but it had its feet planted in so many richly melodic and varied musical traditions, yet made it all work in a rock context, that it did recall the Beatles classic.

It was a very romantic work, especially on the opening “Eldorado Overture,” which was steeped in a wistful 1920s/1930s notion of popular fantasy (embodied in movies and novels like James Hilton’s Lost Horizon and Somerset Maugham’s The Razor’s Edge) about disillusioned seekers. It boasted Lynne’s best single up to that time, “Can’t Get It Out of My Head,” which most radio listeners could never get out of their respective heads, either. The integration of the orchestra would become even more thorough on future albums, but Eldorado was notable for mixing the band and orchestra (and a choir) in ways that did no violence to the best elements of both.

Bruce Eder All Music

I first started listening to ELO in 1976 right before I went into the Air Force. Their album Face the Music had just come out and Evil Woman was getting a lot of airplay. From that moment, I became a huge ELO fan. It would be another year before I bought Eldorado and I couldn’t get enough of it. I still can’t get it out of my mind. The album art is brilliant. Of course, anyone who grew up during this time was treated every year to the annual showing of the Wizard of Oz, which is represented in the album’s artwork.

“Ground Control to Major Tom….”

nasa-oddityThis is awesome.

Astronaut Commander Chris Hadfield has the perfect crowning touch for his time in the International Space Station: his incredible rendition of David Bowie’s “Space Oddity.”

Bowie would be proud of this rendition and Commander, we’re all proud of you down here on Earth and what you have done to make science and space so interesting.

Well done, Commander and welcome back to Earth.

For What It’s Worth / Mr. Soul — Buffalo Springfield

For_What_It's_Worth_(Buffalo_Springfield_song)_album_coverJohnny Fitzpatrick, one of the main characters in Ice Cream Headache, plays drums in a band. In 1967-1968, like most teenagers living in Oglesby, he listened to WLS AM 89 and knew all the songs in the jukebox at M & J’s cafe by heart. Johnny’s musical tastes ran deep and far. I’m sure he was a huge fan of Buffalo Springfield.

WLS Top 40 for the week of February 10, 1967:

1. (I’m A Believer/Steppin’ Stone…………….Monkees
2. Georgy Girl……………………………..Seekers
3. Pushin’ Too Hard………………………….Seeds
4. Ruby Tuesday……………………….Rolling Stones
5. I Love You So Much…………………New Colony Six
6. I Had Too Much To Dream……………Electric Prunes
7. Nothin’ Yet…………………………Blues Magoos
8. Gimme Some Lovin’……………….Spencer Davis Group
9. Love Is Here…………………………….Supremes
10. I Think We’re Alone Now……Tommy James & Shondells
11. Green Green Grass Of Home………………..Tom Jones
12. Then You Can Tell Me Goodbye……………Casinos
13. The Beat Goes On……………………….Sonny & Cher
14. Girl Watcher’s Theme………..Bob Crowe Generation
15. Now Winter Day…………………………….Tommy Roe
16. There’s A Kind Of A Hush……………..Herman’s Hermits
17. Where Will The Words Come From………….Gary Lewis
18. Pretty Ballerina………………………….Left Banke-Smash
19. 98.6……………………………………..Kelth
20. You Got To Me………………………….Neil Diamond
21. How Do You Catch A Girl………………….Sam The Sham
22. Baby, I Need Your Lovin’…………….Johnny Rivers
23. The Mechanical Man………………………….Ben Holt
24. No Fair At All……………………….Association
25. Color My World……………………………Pet Clark
26. Lovin’ You………………………….Bobby Darin
27. Indescribably Blue……………………..Elvis Presley
28. Tell It To The Rain…………………….4 Seasons
29. Sock It To Me………………………Mitch Ryder
30. For What It’s Worth………………Buffalo Springfield
31. Epistle To Dippy……………………………Donovan
32. Mercy, Mercy, Mercy……………Cannonball Adderley
33. Hey Leroy…………………………….Jimmy Castor
34. So You Want To Be A Rock & Roll Star………..Byrds
35. Go Where You Wanna Go………………….5th Dimension
36. Happy Together……………………….Turtles
37. Darlin’ Be Home Soon……………Lovin’ Spoonful
38. Oh Yeah…………………………….Joe Cuba Sextet
39. Stand By Me……………………………Spyder Turner
40. I’ve Been Lonely Too Long…………..Young Rascals

In 1968, the year that Ice Cream Headache takes place, I was listening to WLS and I was playing the jukebox at M & J’s. I watched the Monkees on television and would have heard “I’m a Believer” numerous times.

Friday On My Mind — The Easybeats

easybeats - friday on my mind - frontToday, we’re traveling back to 1967, the year before Ice Cream Headache takes place and music by The Easybeats. Turn it up!

I missed out on The Easybeats the first time around back in 1967. I might have heard them while I was listening to WLS AM 89 out of Chicago. However, It wouldn’t be until the 90s, when I got turned on to the Nuggets Collection, when I “rediscovered” them.

What an upbeat little tune, huh?

Needed some upbeat moments in 1967 that started off with the tragic fire in the Apollo 1 space capsule and America’s continued military buildup in Vietnam.

News and Events of 1967

Population: 3.485 billion
Biafra secedes from Nigeria (May).

Israeli and Arab forces battle; Six-Day War ends with Israel occupying Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip and West Bank (June 5). Background: Arab-Israeli Wars

Right-wing military coup deposes King Constantine II of Greece.

Communist China announces explosion of its first hydrogen bomb (June 17).

The US and USSR propose a nuclear nonproliferation treaty. Background: nuclear disarmament

U.S. Statistics

President: Lyndon B. Johnson
Vice President: Hubert H. Humphrey
Population: 198,712,056
Life expectancy: 70.5 years
Violent Crime Rate (per 1,000): 29.9
Property Crime Rate (per 1,000): 27.4
Homicide Rate (per 100,000): 6.8

Racial violence in Detroit; 7,000 National Guardsmen aid police after night of rioting. Similar outbreaks in New York City’s Spanish Harlem, Rochester, N.Y., Birmingham, Ala., and New Britain, Conn. (July 23).

Thurgood Marshall sworn in as first black US Supreme Court justice (Oct. 2).

Astronauts Col. Virgil I. Grissom, Col. Edward White II, and Lt. Cmdr. Roger B. Chaffee killed in fire during test launch (Jan. 27).


US GDP (1998 dollars):   $833.6 billion
Federal spending:   $157.46 billion
Federal debt:   $340.4 billion
Median Household Income
(current dollars):  $7,143
Consumer Price Index:   33.4
Unemployment:   3.8%
Cost of a first-class stamp:   $0.05


Super Bowl

Green Bay d. Kansas City (35-10)

World Series

St. Louis Cardinals d. Boston Red Sox (4-3)

NBA Championship

Philadelphia 76ers d. SF Warriors (4-2)

Stanley Cup

Toronto d. Montreal (4-2)

Pulitzer Prizes
Fiction: The Fixer, Bernard Malamud
Music: Quartet No. 3, Leon Kirchner
Drama: A Delicate Balance, Edward Albee

Oscars awarded in 1967
Academy Award, Best Picture: A Man for All Seasons, Fred Zinnemann, producer (Columbia)

Nobel Prize for Literature: Miguel Angel Asturias (Guatemala)

Grammys awarded in 1967
Record of the Year: “Strangers in the Night,” Frank Sinatra
Album of the Year: Sinatra: A Man and His Music, Frank Sinatra (Reprise)
Song of the Year: “Michelle,” John Lennon and Paul McCartney, songwriter


Congress creates PBS.

Rolling Stone and New York Magazine debut, spawning the popularity of special-interest and regional magazines.


The Graduate, Bonnie and Clyde, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?, In the Heat of the Night, Cool Hand Luke


The Beatles, Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band


Donald Barthelme, Snow White

Elizabeth Bishop, Selected Poems

Robert Bly, The Light Around the World

Richard Brautigan, Trout Fishing in America

Stanley Elkin, A Bad Man

W. S. Merwin, Lice

Marianne Moore, Complete Poems

Joyce Carol Oates, A Garden of Earthly Delights

William Styron, The Confessions of Nat Turner

Nobel Prizes in Science

Chemistry: Manfred Eigen (Germany), Ronald G. W. Norrish, and George Porter (both UK), for work in high-speed chemical reactions

Physics: Hans A. Bethe (US), for work on energy production of stars

Physiology or Medicine: Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald, and Ragnar Granit (all US), for work on human eye

Antony Hewish and Jocelyn Bell Burnel (UK) discover pulsars.

Jerome Friedman, Henry Kendall, Richard Taylor (US) discover protons and neutrons to be composed of even smaller particles called quarks.

The MIRV (Multiple Indepenently Targetable Reetry Vehicle), which allows one missile to carry several nuclear warheads, is developed.

Dr. Christiaan N. Barnard and team of South African surgeons perform world’s first successful human heart transplant (Dec. 3). The patient dies 18 days later.


Ernesto “Che” Guevara

Spencer Tracy

Woody Guthrie

Langston Hughes

Alice B. Toklas

John Coltrane

You Were On My Mind — Crispian St. Peters / We Five

wefiveTime for another musical journey back in time and my soundtrack for Ice Cream Headache.

Today, it’s another journey back to 1966 and Crispian St. Peter’s, “You Were On My Mind”:

Although this was a hit for Crispian St. Peters in 1966, it was also a hit for We Five the previous year:

What was happening in 1966? Aside from America’s increased involvement in Vietnam, which is the backdrop to this novella, here are some events and statistics from that year courtesy of Info Please:


Population: 3.415 billion

  • France withdraws its forces from NATO. President De Gaulle visits the USSR (June 20).
  • Sukarno leaves office in Indonesia; Suharto assumes power.
  • Botswana, Lesotho, and Guyana become independent states within the British Commonwealth.
  • India suffers the worst famine in 20 years; Lyndon Johnson asks for $1 billion in aid to the country.

U.S. Statistics

President: Lyndon B. Johnson
Vice President: Hubert H. Humphrey
Population: 196,560,338
Life expectancy: 70.2 years
Violent Crime Rate (per 1,000): 26.7
Property Crime Rate (per 1,000): 24.5
Homicide Rate (per 100,000): 5.9

  • Medicare begins (July 1).
  • Supreme Court decides Miranda v. Arizona, protecting rights of the accused.
  • Stokeley Carmichael elected president of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Background: Student movements


US GDP (1998 dollars):   $787.8 billion
Federal spending:   $134.53 billion
Federal debt:   $328.5 billion
Consumer Price Index:   32.4
Unemployment:   4.5%
Cost of a first-class stamp:   $0.05

World Series

Baltimore d. LA Dodgers (4-0)

NBA Championship

Boston d. LA Lakers (4-3)

Stanley Cup

Montreal d. Detroit (4-2)


Women: Billie Jean King d. M. Bueno (6-3 3-6 6-1)
Men: Manuel Santana d. D. Ralston (6-4 11-9 6-4)

Kentucky Derby Champion

Kauai King

NCAA Basketball Championship

Texas Western d. Kentucky (72-65)

NCAA Football Champions

Notre Dame (AP, UPI, FW, NFF-tie) (9-0-1) & Michigan St. (NFF-tie) (9-0-1)

World Cup

England d. W. Germany (4-2)

Pulitzer Prizes
Fiction: Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter, Katherine Anne Porter
Music: Variations for Orchestra, Leslie Bassett

Academy Award, Best Picture: The Sound of Music, Robert Wise, producer (Twentieth Century-Fox)

Nobel Prize for Literature: Shmuel Yosef Agnon (Israel) and Nelly Sachs (Sweden)

Record of the Year: “A Taste of Honey,” Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass
Album of the Year: September of My Years, Frank Sinatra (Reprise)
Song of the Year: “The Shadow of Your Smile” (Love Theme From The Sandpiper), Paul Francis Webster and Johnny Mandel, songwriters

Miss America: Deborah Irene Bryant (KS)


  • The first Star Trek episode, “The Man Trap,” is broadcast on September 8. The plot concerns a creature that sucks salt from human bodies.
  • CBS backs out of plans to broadcast Psycho, deeming the movie too violent for at-home viewing.
  • The old Metropolitan Opera House is abandoned as the company moves to Lincoln Center. The new Metropolitan Opera opens with Samuel Barber’s Antony and Cleopatra.


  • A Man for All Seasons, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Alfie, A Man and a Woman


  • John Barth, Giles Goat-Boy
  • Paul Bowles, Up Above the World
  • Truman Capote, In Cold Blood
  • Robert Coover, The Origin of the Brunists
  • Bernard Malamud, The Fixer
  • Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49

Nobel Prizes in Science

Chemistry: Robert Sanderson Mulliken (US), for research on bond holding atoms together in molecule

Physics: Alfred Kastler (France), for work on energy levels inside atom

Physiology or Medicine: Charles Brenton Huggins (US), for studies in hormone treatment of cancer of prostate; Francis Peyton Rous (US), for discovery of tumor-producing viruses

  • Insulin is first synthesized in China.
  • MIT biochemist Har Khorana finishes deciphering the DNA code.
  • The Food and Drug Administration declares “the Pill” safe for human use.


  • Montgomery Clift
  • Walt Disney
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